S-400 missile system

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search

S-400 Triumf
NATO reporting name: SA-21 Growler
С-400 «Триумф».JPG
S-400 Triumf launch vehicle
TypeLong-range, mobile surface-to-air/
anti-ballistic missile system
Place of originRussia
Service history
In service28 April 2007 – present[1]
Used byPrimary user: Russia
See Operators section for others
Production history
DesignerAlmaz-Antey
ManufacturerFakel Machine-Building Design Bureau
Unit cost$300 million per System
Specifications

EngineYaMZ-8424.10 Diesel V12
400 HP/294kW
TransmissionYaMZ
SuspensionLeaf spring
Ground clearance485 mm
Operational
range
400 km (40N6E missile)
200-250 km (48N6 missile)
120 km (9M96E2 missile)
40 km (9M96E missile)

The S-400 Triumf (Russian: C-400 Триумф – Triumf; translation: Triumph; NATO reporting name: SA-21 Growler), previously known as the S-300 PMU-3,[2] is a mobile, surface-to-air missile (SAM) system developed in the 1990s by Russia's Almaz Central Design Bureau for Marine Engineering as an upgrade to the S-300 family.

The S-400 went into service on 28 April 2007. The first battalion of the newest surface-to-air missile systems assumed combat duty on 6 August.

Development[edit]

The development of the S-400 system began in the late 1980s and was announced by the Russian Air Force in January 1993.[3] On 12 February 1999 successful tests were reported at Kapustin Yar in Astrakhan, and the S-400 was scheduled for deployment by the Russian army in 2001.[4] Dr. Alexander Lemanskiy of Almaz-Antey was the Chief Engineer on the S-400 project.

In 2003, it became apparent that the system was not ready for deployment. In August, two high-ranking military officials expressed concern that the S-400 was being tested with "obsolete" interceptors from the S-300P system and concluded that it was not ready for deployment.[4] The completion of the project was announced in February 2004. In April, a ballistic missile was successfully intercepted in a test of the upgraded 48N6DM missile.[5][6] In 2007, the system was approved for service.[7] Russia had accepted for service the 40N6 long-range missile for the S-400 air-defence system, a source in the domestic defense industry told TASS news agency in October 2018.[8]

The S-400 Triumf and Pantsir missile system can be integrated into a two-layer defense system.[9][10]

Structure[edit]

PBU 55K6E command centre

S-400 missile systems are organized around the 30K6E administration system, which can coordinate eight divisions (battalions).[11][12][13] The 55K6E is a command and control center based on the Ural-532301. The 91N6E[11] is a panoramic radar detection system with a 600-kilometre (370 mi) range and protection against jamming, and is mounted on an MZKT-7930.[citation needed] Six battalions of 98ZH6E surface-to-air missile systems (an independent combat system)[14] can track no more than six targets on their own,[15] with an additional two battalions if they are within a 40-kilometre (25 mi) range. The 92N6E (or 92N2E) is a multi-functional radar with a 400-kilometre (250 mi) range, which can track 100 targets.[16] The 5P85TE2 launcher and the 5P85SE2 on a trailer (up to 12 launchers) are used for launch. The 48N6E, 48N6E2, 48N6E3, 48N6DM, 9M96E, 9M96E2, and the ultra-long-range 40N6E missiles have been authorized by a Russian presidential decree.[17]

Truck-mounted radar
S-400 92N2 radar and 5P85T2

Optional elements of the S-400 (98ZH6E)[14][18] include the 15I6ME–98ZH6E, which extends coverage 30, 60 and 90 km (19, 38 and 57 mi) from that provided by the 30K6E. The 96L6E[19] has a 300-kilometre (190 mi) detection range. The 40B6M is housing for the 92N6E or 96L6E radar. The Protivnik-GE is an anti-stealth UHF radar with a 400-kilometre (250 mi) range.[20] The Moscow-1 passive sensor is 2+12 times more effective than the Protivnik, with a 400-kilometre (250 mi) range[21] Orion[22] for a target-designation on-the-air defense system, and the Avtobaza-M[23] and Orion+ Avtobaza add high-precision detection. The 1RL220BE[14][24] versions were reportedly used for jamming.[25] The 400-kilometre (250 mi)-range S-200D Dubna (SA-5c) missiles and S-300 P-family radar systems can be used without additional command-and-control centers.[26] S-300 (SA-20A, SA-20B) missiles may also be guided.[27] A-50 and A-50U[11] aircraft provide early warning and command-and-control target designation.[28]

The 30К6Е control system can be integrated with the[14] S-400 Triumf 98ZH6E system; the S-300PMU2 (through the 83М6Е2 control system); the S-300PMU1 (through the 83М6Е control system); the Tor-M1 through the Ranzhir-M battery-command post; the Pantsir-S1 through the lead battery vehicle. The Protivnik-GE and Gamma-DE radars, integrated with the 92H6E radar system, enables communication between each battery with Baikal-E senior command posts and similar types; nearby 30К6Е, 83М6Е and 83М6Е2 administration systems; the Polyana-D4М1 command post; fighter-aircraft command post, and mobile long-range radars. The system's VHF component provides sector search-and-tracking, with the X- and L-band components providing fine-tracking capability. Good placement of the radars relative to the threat axis enables the L- and X-band components to illuminate the incoming target from angles where the target radar cross-section (RCS) is sub-optimal. The RLM-S and RLM-D have better elevation-tracking accuracy than the RLM-M, and the Nebo M should be capable of producing high-quality tracks suitable for mid-course guidance of modern surface-to-air missiles and trajectory guidance of legacy SAMs.[29]

92N6A radar for S-400

The Gamma-C1E SHF mobile radar station has a 300-kilometre (190 mi) detection range.[30] The Nebo-M VHF mobile radar station and the Resonance-NE radar station have a detection range of 400 kilometres (250 mi), and 40 kilometres (25 mi) to a height of 500 metres (1,600 ft). All Nebo-family locators are doubled for army air defense.[31] During the 1970s, the long-range mobile UHF 5H87, and SHF 5H69 low-altitude locators were used.[32] A goal of the 1980s was detection at a height of 10 metres (33 ft) at a distance of 40 km (25 mi).[33] The Elbrus-90 computer is used to control the system.[34]

Components[edit]

The 91N6E panoramic radar[35] has a declared anti-stealth targeting range of 150 km (93 mi)[36] Maximum targeting ranges (detection ranges are wider) are:

  • For a ballistic target (speed of 4800 m/s and a RCS of 0.4 square metres): 200 km
  • For a target with RCS of 4 square metres: 390 km
  • For targeting of strategic-bomber sized types: 400 km
96L6 high-altitude radar

The 96L6 high-altitude detector (TSBS)[37][38] radar and equipment operates independently of the 96L6E low-level radar detector. The 96L6E2 export version can track a maximum of 100 targets, and is resistant to false returns of clutter in mountainous terrain. It can perform the functions of a command post for battalions of S-300 (SA20/20A/20B)[39] or S-400. The 96L6-1[40] serves as command of S-400 and S-500 batteries.

  • PBU 55K6E command center[41] with a maximum distance between the command center and the battalion of 98ZH6E when re-transmitters are being used is 100 km (62 mi).

Missiles are launched from 5P85TE2 self-propelled launchers or 5P85SE2 trailer launchers operating in conjunction with a BAZ-64022 or MAZ-543M tractor-trailer. A new type of transporter was introduced in 2014 to improve mobility while reducing fuel consumption. The cost of transporters in 2014 is 8.7 million rubles.[42]

Missiles[edit]

One system comprising eight divizion (battalions) can control 72 launchers, with a maximum of 384 missiles[43] (including missiles with a range of less than 250 km [160 mi]).[44][45] A gas system launches missiles from launch tubes. At 30 metres (98 ft) downrange rocket motor ignition activiates.[27] In April 2015, a successful test firing of the missile was conducted at an airborne target at a range of 400 km (250 mi);[46][47] Transporter Erector Launchers (TELs) carrying the long-range 40N6 may only hold two missiles instead of the typical four due to their large size.[48] Another test recorded a 9M96 missile using an active radar homing head that reached a height of 56 km.[49] All missiles are equipped with directed explosion warheads, which increases the probability of complete destruction of targets.[50] In 2016, Russian anti-aircraft missile troops received upgraded guided missiles for S-300 and S-400 defense systems.[51] The anti-aircraft version of the missile system, designed to destroy aircraft, cruise, and ballistic missiles, can also be used against ground targets.[52] The S-400 is able to intercept cruise missiles at a range of only about 40 km due to their low-altitude flight paths.[53]

Missile specifications
GRAU index Range Altitude Maximum velocity Maximum target velocity Weight Warhead Guidance Notes
40N6E[54] 400 km (250 mi)[54] 30 km (98,000 ft)[54] 1,190 m/s (2,700 mph; Mach 3.5)[55] 4,800 m/s (11,000 mph; Mach 14)[54] 1,893 kg[56] Semi-active radar homing or
active radar homing
With an active radar homing head, climbs to designated altitude then guidance switches to search & destroy mode.[27]

Effective against low-altitude targets at extremely long range (below the radio horizon).[57]

48N6DM/
48N6E3
250 km (160 mi)[58] 60 km (200,000 ft) 2,000 m/s (4,500 mph; Mach 5.9)[58] 4,800 m/s (11,000 mph; Mach 14)[58] 1,835 kg (4,045 lb)[58] 180 kg (400 lb)[58] Semi-active radar homing[14]
48N6E2 200 km (120 mi)[58] 2,000 m/s (4,500 mph; Mach 5.9)[58] 2,800 m/s (6,300 mph; Mach 8.2)[58] 1,835 kg (4,045 lb)[58] 180 kg (400 lb)[58] Semi-active radar homing[14]
9M96 and
9M96E2
120 km (75 mi)[59] 30 km (98,000 ft)[59] 1,000 m/s (2,200 mph; Mach 2.9)[59] 420 kg (930 lb)[59] 24 kg (53 lb)[59] Active radar homing[59] High hit probability with one missile against fast, maneuvering targets. Aircraft = 0.9; UAV = 0.8; Missile = 0.7.[11][59]
Load factor of more than 20 g at 30 km altitude greatly increases the probability to destroy short- to medium-range ballistic missiles.[26]
9M96E 40 km (25 mi)[59][60] 20 km (66,000 ft)[60] 900 m/s (2,000 mph; Mach 2.6)[61] 333 kg (734 lb)[60] 24 kg (53 lb)[60] Active radar homing[62] Targeting at the radio horizon, with homing action to aid interception of low-flying targets at long range.
  • The anti-ballistic missile (ABM) capabilities of the S-400 system are near the maximum allowed under the (now void) Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty.
  • The new anti-ballistic missiles 77N6-N and 77N6-N1 to enter service in 2014 supposedly add inert/kinetic anti-ballistic capability to the system.[63] The same missiles will also be used by the S-500, which has a clearly stated anti-ICBM role.[64]

S-300 system family tree[edit]

S-300 family
S-300VS-300PS-300F
S-300V1S-300V2S-300PTS-300PSFortRif
S-300VMS-300PT-1S-300PMS-300PMUFort-MRif-M
Favorit-S
S-300VM1S-300VM2S-300PT-1AS-300PM1S-300PMU1
Antey 2500S-300PM2S-300PMU2Russian Ver.
S-300V4FavoritExport Ver.
S-300VMDS-400

Morpheus defence system[edit]

  • A separate independent air defense system, the 42S6 Morfey (Morpheus) is being developed. This system is designated as a short-range air defense system to protect the S-400 from various threats during its terminal phase, and will also act together with the S-350E as a supplement to the S-400. Together, these systems form part of the Russian Aerospace Defence Forces.[65]
  • Development of Morfey started in 2007 and was planned to be introduced in 2013, but was delayed until at least 2015.[66][67][68] The missile system consists of omnidirectional 29YA6 radar and 36 missiles.[65] The missiles have up to 10 km range and an altitude of up to 3500 m.[65][69]
  • An external independent target system is in the works (RLS "Niobium"). Mobility looks to be in the 5 minute range. It uses multiple frequency capability (band S and UHF) with a declared detection parameter of a 1 square meter RCS at 430 km including a target speed of 8000 km/h (4791 mph, Mach 6.35). The detection system requires the operator to transfer command of targeting to subordinate systems; in this application, the maximum target speed is obtained by use of the subordinate systems.[70]

Specifications[edit]

Main characteristics of the S-400[71]
Max. target speed 4.8 km/s (17,000 km/h; 11,000 mph; Mach 14)[18]
Target detection distance (km) 600
Range against aerodynamic target (km)
  • maximum
  • minimum

400[72]
2[44]
Altitude limits for aerodynamic target (2015, km)
  • maximum
  • minimum

27[18] (easily)/30,[45] 56[73] (9m96e2),[74] up to 185 km (40Н6Е)[56]
0.005(9M96)/0.01(all)
Range against tactical ballistic targets (km)
  • maximum
  • minimum

60
5[14]
The number of simultaneously engaged targets (full system) 80[11][44][75][76][77]
The number of simultaneously guided missiles (full system) 160[44][45][78][79] can use 2 missile to attack 1 target[80]
Ready for operation on a signal from driving on the march 5 min;[81] 10–15 min during development[77]
Ready for operation on a signal from standby ready and enabled 35 sec; ready 3 min[35]
Time between major overhauls 10,000 hours
Service life
  • ground facilities
  • anti-aircraft guided missiles

At least 20 years
15 years
  • Types of targets:[82][83][84]
    • Strategic bombers such as the B-1, FB-111, and B-52H
    • Electronic warfare airplanes such as the EF-111A, and EA-6
    • Reconnaissance airplanes such as the TR-1
    • Early-warning radar airplanes such as the E-3A and E-2C
    • Fighter airplanes such as the F-15, F-16
    • Ballistic missiles (range up to 3,500 km)[60]
  • All-purpose maximum radial velocity is 4.8 kilometres per second (17,000 km/h; 11,000 mph; Mach 14); absolute limit 5 kilometres per second (18,000 km/h; 11,000 mph; Mach 15),[60] the minimum is zero.[14]
  • System response time 9–10 seconds.[85]
  • The complex can move on roads at 60 km/h (37 mph) and off-road at speeds up to 25 km/h (16 mph).[76]
  • According to the Pravda state newspaper, the price of one battalion (about 7–8 launchers) is US$200 million.[86]

Deployment history[edit]

Russia[edit]

S-400 «Triumph» crew on duty

A regular S-400 battalion consists of up to eight launchers with 32 missiles and a mobile command post.[87] On 21 May 2007 the Russian Air Force announced that S-400 systems would be put on combat duty around Moscow and Central Russia by 1 July 2007.[88] The S-400 was also deployed near the town of Elektrostal.[89]

On 6 August 2007 the first regiment equipped with S-400 systems entered active service in Moscow Oblast near Elektrostal, according to Channel One Russia. The regiment was the 606th Guards Anti-air Rocket Regiment, 9th PVO Division, 1st PVO Corps, of the Special Purpose Command.[90]

On 8 February 2008 Lt. Gen. Vladimir Sviridov announced that Russia would be replacing the S-300 systems in the Northwest of Russia with the S-400. Military experts expect Russia's use of the system as a major component of their ballistic missile defense until 2020.[91]

In September 2006 Deputy Prime Minister Sergei Ivanov announced the purchase of 18 S-400 battalions for internal defense for the period 2007–15.[92]

On 17 March 2009 Russia's defense minister announced that a second regiment equipped with advanced S-400 Triumf air defense missile systems had been put into combat service.[93]

On 26 August 2009 the General Staff said S-400 systems had been deployed in the Russian Far East to counter possible North Korean missile tests and prevent fragments from falling onto Russian territory.[87]

In February 2011 a second unit of S-400 missile systems was deployed at Dubrovki, north of Moscow. The 210th Air Defense Regiment consists of two battalions, each deploying eight launch points of four missiles.[94] In February 2011, it was also announced that the missile system will be deployed in the southern Kuril Islands "to protect Russia's sovereignty in the Far East".[95]

The Baltic Fleet in Kaliningrad received S-400 SAM systems which went into operational status in April 2012.[96] One S-400 divizion is deployed on combat duty in the Russian far east city of Nakhodka.[97]

As of 2012, one system (in Electrostal) was operational, with three more S-400 battalions being deployed. All 56 battalions will be delivered by 2020.[98][needs update] Russia is also setting up two regiments of S-400 in the Eastern Military district.[99]

As of September 2013 the Russian Armed Forces had five S-400 regiments: two in Moscow, one in the Pacific fleet, one in the Baltic Fleet, and one in the Southern Military District. Starting in 2014, the army was to receive two to three sets of regimental units of S-400 systems every year.[citation needed] Another S-400 regiment was to be put on combat duty around Moscow by the end of 2013. Russia eventually plans to deploy 28 S-400 regiments by 2020, each comprising two or three battalions with four systems each.[citation needed]

Russia plans to recommission the Kirov-class battlecruiser Admiral Nakhimov in 2018. Plans called for the installation of the 48N6DMK anti-aircraft missile derived from the land-based S-400. This will extend the Kirov's air defense from 100 km (62 mi; 54 nmi) to 250 km (160 mi; 130 nmi).[100][needs update] Adm. Vladimir Korolev stated at that time that Russia's Northern Fleet's Coastal Forces had deployed S-400s.[101][102]

On 1 March 2016 the acting commander of the 14th Air Force and Air Defense Army, major general Vladimir Korytkov, said that six S-400 units had been activated at the air defense formation in Russia's Novosibirsk Oblast.[103] TASS also reported that as of the end of 2015, a total of eleven Russian missile regiments were armed with S-400, and by the end of 2016 their number was expected to increase to sixteen.[103]

2015 Russian military intervention in Syria[edit]

It was reported in November 2015 that S-400s would be deployed to Syria along with the contingent of Russian troops and other military hardware in the course of the air campaign conducted by the Russian forces in support of the Syrian government.[104] However, those claims were refuted by Russia.[105] On 25 November 2015 the Russian government announced it would deploy S-400s in Syria as a response to the downing of its Su-24M jet by Turkey.[106] By the next day, deployment of S-400 air defense systems to Syria was underway.[107] The first S-400 unit was activated at the Khmeimim Air Base in Latakia Governorate.[108] In April and July 2017 a second S-400 unit was activated 13 km northwest of Masyaf, Hama Governorate.[108] Although these systems are located in Syria, they are under the command of the Russian military and not the Syrian (nor Iranian) military,[109] making the Russian government liable if used against another state (that is, its use would be considered an attack by Russia rather than Syria).

On 22 May 2018 Israeli Air Force commander, Major General Amikam Norkin, reported that Israel became the first country in the world to use the F-35I Adir in combat during recent clashes with Iran in Syria.[110] In mid-2020, several media outlets, including Turkish media, questioned the combat capability of the S-400 air defense system.[111] In late December 2021, the Israeli Air Force flew military jets over areas protected by S-400 and Pantsir SAM in Syria and bombed Iran-backed Hezbollah militia based in Latakia.[112] Russia operates a naval base in the port of Tartus, 85km to the south near the port of Latakia.[113][114] Considering the engagement range advertised by the Russians, the S-400 could have engaged Israeli aircraft but did not. Neither Russian fighter jets nor the S-400 systems attempted to intercept the Israeli aircraft.[109] It is widely believed that Russia and Israel have an agreement that Israel will guarantee the safety of Russian personnel and assets during its strikes on non-Russian targets in Syria and in return, Russia will not target Israeli aircraft nor repel Israeli strikes.[109]

2022 Russian invasion of Ukraine[edit]

According to Ukrainian sources, on 25 February 2022, the Su-27 of Ukrainian Col. Oleksandr Oksanchenko was shot down by an S-400 over Kyiv.[115]

On 14 April 2022, the Russian Defence Ministry stated a Ukrainian Mi-8 was shot down by a S-400 near Horodnia, Chernihiv Oblast on its way to an air base following an attack on Russian territory near Klimovo, Bryansk Oblast.[116][117]

Ukrainian Presidential advisor, Mykhaylo Podolyak, claims that HIMARS missiles can’t be intercepted by the S-400. Saying during a press conference: “Russia wants to show that she has powerful weapons superior to anything else in the world. You all [independent media] have seen that the famous S-400 system intercepts rockets, like the Russian national soccer team catches soccer balls.”[118]

On 15 October 2022, a S-400 missile crashed or was shot down in the Grayvoronsky District of Belgorod Oblast, Russia.[119]

Belarus[edit]

In 2011 State Secretary of the Union State of Russia and Belarus Pavel Borodin stated that Russia will supply the S-400 air defense system to Belarus.[120] On 1 December 2021 Belarus President Alexander Lukashenko, in response to a reporter's question, replied that a Belarusian training center already has S-400 systems. The president said: “Yes. We train our guys in this training center. I'd like to ask the president [of Russia] to leave this system here.”[121] In May 2022 Lukashenko further announced the country bought an undisclosed number of S-400 air defense missile systems.[122]

China[edit]

In March 2014, it was announced that Russian President Vladimir Putin had given authorization to sell the S-400 system to China.[citation needed] On 13 April 2015, the chief executive of the Russian state-run arms trader Rosoboronexport confirmed that China secured a contract for the purchase of the S-400 air defense system.[123] Delivery of the system began in January 2018.[124] China test fired Russian S-400 systems for the first time in early August 2018.[125][126] Deliveries were reportedly postponed after the delivery of two S-400 units. [127]

The acquisition of S-400, reported to initially consist of six batteries, improves China's air space defense. A reported 400 km (250 mi) coverage range would allow China's defense of the Taiwan Straits and the Diaoyu Islands. Taiwan plans countermeasures using signals intelligence units to locate and destroy S-400 systems before they can be used.[128]

Turkey[edit]

In late 2017 Turkish and Russian officials signed a US$2.5 billion agreement for delivery of the S-400 air defense system to Turkey.[129][130] The US Secretary of State raised concerns over the deal,[131] which were rebuffed by President Erdogan and other Turkish officials, citing the US refusal to sell the upgraded MIM-104 Patriot to Turkey. Turkey received its first installment of the Russian S-400 missile defense system on 12 July 2019.[132] On 17 July 2019, Turkey was suspended from the F-35 program, the US stating "F-35 cannot coexist with a Russian intelligence collection platform that will be used to learn about its advanced capabilities"[133] and on December 14, 2020, the US imposed CAATSA sanctions on Turkey.[134] As of 2020, 4 batteries consisting of 36 fire units, and 192+ missiles were delivered to Turkey.[135]

Turkey has tested the S-400 air defense system against drones and F-16 fighter jets at low altitudes. According to Turkish media, the Turkish military has identified some deficiencies against a slow-moving object at low altitude.[136][137]  

India[edit]

On 15 October 2016, during the BRICS Summit, India and Russia signed an Inter-governmental Agreement (IGA) for the supply of five S-400 regiments to India.[138] The US$5.43 billion deal (₹40,000 crore) was formally signed on 5 October 2018, ignoring the threat of US sanctions.[139] The deliveries are expected to commence by the end of 2020[140][141][142] and brought into service in October 2020.[143]

In March 2021, U.S. Secretary of Defense Lloyd Austin discussed India's planned purchase of Russia's S-400 air missile system and warned that the purchase of S-400 could trigger CAATSA sanctions.[144]

In November 2021, Russia stated that it had begun delivery of S-400 missiles to India and that deployment was proceeding as scheduled.[145][146]

India has already received two S-400 system from Russia and third squadron will be delivered in November 2022.[147] According to reports, that system was delivered in November 2021. Alexander Mikheyev, Rosoboronexport CEO, said “The contract with India is being implemented successfully. In the near future, we will supply a second regiment. The first one has been provided already. More than 200 specialists have been trained. All five regiments will be supplied by the end of 2023”.[148]

Foreign interest[edit]

Saudi Arabia[edit]

In September 2009 the S-400 was reportedly part of a US$2 billion arms deal between Russia and Saudi Arabia.[149] The Saudis wanted to acquire the more advanced S-400, but Russia was only willing to sell S-300 air defense system at the time.[150] By November 2019 the deal had still not been finalized.[151] Saudi Arabia is no longer considering the Russian S-400 air defense system, following the kingdom’s deal for an American alternative. The American Terminal High Altitude Area Defense (THAAD) system has been cleared for sale to the Saudis by the U.S. State Department cleared the THAAD estimated at $15 billion in 2017 dollars.[152]

Iran[edit]

In June 2019 some Iranian officials expressed interest in procuring the S-400 missile system to further improve its defense capabilities along with the previously purchased S-300PMU2. Russia stated at the time it was ready to sell the S-400 system to Iran if an official request was made.[citation needed]

Egypt[edit]

In February 2017 Sergey Chemezov, CEO of Rostec, stated that Egypt was interested in the S-400 air defense system. He explained that Russia offered to sell Egypt either the Antey-2500 or S-400. According to Chemezov, the negotiations were delayed due to Egypt's financial issues.[153]

Iraq[edit]

In February 2018 Iraqi Minister of Foreign Affairs Ibrahim al-Jaafari confirmed ongoing rumors that his country had shown interest in the S-400 and that negotiations with Russia were underway.[154][155][156] In May 2019 Iraq's ambassador to Russia, Haidar Mandour Hadi, said the Iraqi government had decided to procure the S-400 air defense system.[157]

Qatar[edit]

In January 2018 Russian state media TASS reported that Qatar was in an advanced state of talks to procure the S-400 air defense system.[158][159]

United States[edit]

In June 2020 United States senator John Thune proposed an amendment to the (ultimately unsuccessful) Senate version of the 2021 National Defense Authorization Act to allow the US Department of Defense to purchase Turkey's S-400 system with funds from the U.S. Army's missile procurement account,[160] thus negating Turkey's contravention of the Countering America's Adversaries Through Sanctions Act of 2017.[161] This was an attempt to allow Turkey to re-enter the F-35 Lightning II acquisition and ownership program.[161]

Serbia[edit]

Serbia has also expressed interest in the system.[162][163]

Foreign variant[edit]

South Korea[edit]

South Korea is developing a simplified medium range SAM system, M-SAM Cheolmae-2, based on technology from the 9M96 missile and with help of the Almaz. The prime contractor is Samsung Thales, a joint venture between Samsung and Thales.[164] The M-SAM will be composed of an X band multi-function radar vehicle built by Samsung Thales in technical cooperation with Almaz,[165] fire-control vehicles, and transporter erector launchers built by Doosan.[166] Missiles are to be provided by LIG Nex1.[167]

Operators[edit]

  Current operators:  Belarus,[121]  China,[168]  India,[169]  Russia,[170]  Turkey,[171]
  Suspected operator:  Algeria[172]


Current operators[edit]

 Belarus
 China

 India

  • Indian Armed Forces – A contract was signed in October 2018 during an official meeting between Russia's President Vladimir Putin and India's Prime Minister Narendra Modi in New Delhi. The deal, worth of $US5.43 billion, includes delivery of the 1st regiment of the S-400 beginning November 2021. India plans to deploy the 1st regiment of the S-400 by April 2022.
 Russia
 Turkey

Turkish Air Force:

Related[edit]

See also[edit]

Gallery[edit]

 

External links[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "ЗРС С-400 Триумф" [S-400 Triumf] (in Russian). S400.ru. Archived from the original on 31 October 2001. Retrieved 29 October 2013.
  2. ^ Bryen, Stephen (17 October 2017). "Russia's S-400 Is a Game Changer in the Middle East (and America Should Worry)". Archived from the original on 19 October 2017. Retrieved 19 October 2017.
  3. ^ Land Based Air Defence, Jane's, 2010–2011
  4. ^ a b "S-400 (SA-20)". Missile Threat. CSIS.
  5. ^ "Russia: New S-400 Air Defense System Coming Soon". Periscope Daily Defense News Capsules. 4 April 2001.
  6. ^ "Russia Trumpets New S-400 Missile System". BBC Monitoring. 23 March 2001.
  7. ^ "400". VPK. Archived from the original on 6 October 2014. Retrieved 14 November 2014.
  8. ^ "Advanced long-range missile for S-400 system accepted for service in Russia". TASS. Archived from the original on 21 October 2018. Retrieved 21 October 2018.
  9. ^ "Russia's newest anti-air defenses are in Syria – and the US should be worried". Business Insider. 11 April 2018. Archived from the original on 19 July 2018. Retrieved 10 August 2018.
  10. ^ "The S-400–Pantsir 'Tandem': The New-Old Feature of Russian A2/AD Capabilities". Jamestown. Archived from the original on 10 August 2018. Retrieved 10 August 2018.
  11. ^ a b c d e "Зенитный ракетный комплекс С-400 'Триумф'" [Anti-aircraft missile system S-400 'triumph'] (in Russian). Archived from the original on 6 October 2014. Retrieved 14 November 2014.
  12. ^ "Характеристики зенитной ракетной системы С-400 "Триумф"" [Characteristics of surface-to-air missile systems s-400 "triumph"]. RIA Novosty (in Russian). 17 February 2010. Archived from the original on 4 November 2014. Retrieved 14 November 2014.
  13. ^ "-400 "" (, )". -. Archived from the original on 6 October 2014. Retrieved 14 November 2014.
  14. ^ a b c d e f g h "ГСКБ Концерна ПВО Алмаз-Антей имени академика А.А. Расплетина (ОАО НИЭМИ) : с-25 беркут, бункин борис васильевич, с 300 пму, с-300 пму, зрс, с-400 триумф, средства пво, четырёхсотка, противовоздушная оборона". Archived from the original on 3 April 2014. Retrieved 14 November 2014.
  15. ^ "Западные СМИ: зенитно-ракетные комплексы S-400 и S-500 могут стать лучшими комплексами противовоздушной обороны в мире". Archived from the original on 6 October 2014. Retrieved 14 November 2014.
  16. ^ "ГСКБ Концерна ПВО Алмаз-Антей имени академика А.А. Расплетина". Archived from the original on 29 November 2014. Retrieved 14 November 2014.
  17. ^ Частокол противовоздушной обороны / Вооружения / Независимая газета (in Russian). Nvo.ng.ru. 29 February 2008. Archived from the original on 13 April 2014. Retrieved 29 October 2013.
  18. ^ a b c Мобильная многоканальная зенитная ракетная система С-400 "Триумф" [Mobile multichannel air defense missile system S-400 "Triumf"] (in Russian). Archived from the original on 2 January 2014. Retrieved 30 August 2014.
  19. ^ "АО НПО ЛЭМЗ – ПРОДУКТЫ и УСЛУГИ – УПРАВЛЕНИЕ ВОЗДУШНЫМ ДВИЖЕНИЕМ". lemz.ru. Archived from the original on 8 July 2013. Retrieved 1 January 2014.
  20. ^ "РЛС «Гамма-ДЕ» (67Н6Е)". АО "Концерн ВКО "Алмаз - Антей". 21 March 2017. Archived from the original on 20 May 2017. Retrieved 21 July 2017.
  21. ^ "Армия получит комплекс радиолокации "Москва-1"". rostec.ru. Archived from the original on 27 November 2016. Retrieved 26 November 2016.
  22. ^ "RusArmy.com –". Archived from the original on 16 March 2015. Retrieved 14 November 2014.
  23. ^ "1Л222 Автобаза". Archived from the original on 22 October 2014. Retrieved 14 November 2014.
  24. ^ "Индексы ГРАУ МО СССР / РФ". Archived from the original on 2 January 2014. Retrieved 14 November 2014.
  25. ^ "Россия представит уникальные военные разработки". Archived from the original on 22 October 2014. Retrieved 14 November 2014.
  26. ^ a b "-400". Archived from the original on 13 October 2014. Retrieved 14 November 2014.
  27. ^ a b c "Зенитная ракетная система С-400 "Триумф"". Archived from the original on 9 October 2014. Retrieved 14 November 2014.
  28. ^ "ТАНТК им. Г. М. Бериева – самолёт радиолокационного дозора и наведения А-50Э". beriev.com. Archived from the original on 23 February 2014. Retrieved 29 September 2014.
  29. ^ "Russian / PLA Low Band Surveillance Radars". Archived from the original on 2 March 2017.
  30. ^ "RusArmy.com – Радиолокационная станция "Гамма-C1E"". rusarmy.com. Archived from the original on 3 January 2012. Retrieved 22 October 2016.
  31. ^ bmpd (21 April 2016). "Закупка радиолокационных станций "Ниобий-СВ"". Archived from the original on 5 December 2016. Retrieved 26 October 2016.
  32. ^ "РЛС "Противник-Г"- ломка стереотипов | Журнал "Воздушно-космическая оборона"". www.vko.ru. Archived from the original on 22 October 2016. Retrieved 22 October 2016.
  33. ^ "ОСНОВЫ СИСТЕМЫ ПРО/ПВО". ВОЕННЫЕ НОВОСТИ. Archived from the original on 23 October 2016. Retrieved 22 October 2016.
  34. ^ Sudakov, Dmitry (25 September 2017). "Russia's S-400 air defence systems for NATO armies". Pravda Report. Archived from the original on 27 October 2018. Retrieved 3 November 2018. The S-400 works equally well in 360 degrees of activity area. Its phased array radar antenna with Elbrus-90 computer ensures the detection range of up to 600 kilometres.
  35. ^ a b "НЕВСКИЙ БАСТИОН, ВОЕННО-ТЕХНИЧЕСКИЙ СБОРНИК, ВООРУЖЕНИЯ, ВОЕННАЯ ТЕХНИКА, ВОЕННО-ТЕХНИЧЕСКИЙ СБОРНИК, СОВРЕМЕННОЕ СОСТОЯНИЕ, ИСТОРИЯ РАЗВИТИЯ ОПК, БАСТИОН ВТС, НЕВСКИЙ БАСТИОН, ЖУРНАЛ, СБОРНИК, ВПК, АРМИИ, ВЫСТАВКИ, САЛОНЫ, ВОЕННО-ТЕХНИЧЕСКИЕ, НОВОСТИ, ПОСЛЕДНИЕ НОВОСТИ, ВОЕННЫЕ НОВОСТИ, СОБЫТИЯ ФАКТЫ ВПК, НОВОСТИ ОПК, ОБОРОННАЯ ПРОМЫШЛЕННОСТЬ, МИНИСТРЕСТВО ОБОРОНЫ, СИЛОВЫХ СТРУКТУР, КРАСНАЯ АРМИЯ, СОВЕТСКАЯ АРМИЯ, РУССКАЯ АРМИЯ, ЗАРУБЕЖНЫЕ ВОЕННЫЕ НОВОСТИ, ВиВТ, ПВН" [Nevsky Bastion, The Military Technical Collection, Weapons, Military Equipment, Military Technical Collection, State of the Art, The History of the Development of the Defense Industrial Complex, The Bastion of the PTS, Nevsky Bastion, Magazine Sampler, Mic, Army, Exhibitions, Showrooms, Military-Technical, News, Latest News, Military News, Events, Facts of the MIC, Mic News Defense Industry, Ministry of Defence, The Security Forces, The Red Army, The Soviet Army, Russian Army, Foreign Military News, A And Me, HRP]. nevskii-bastion.ru (in Russian). Archived from the original on 18 July 2017. Retrieved 30 March 2015.
  36. ^ "С-400 vs Patriot: в чем американцы уступают нашим ЗРС". 28 April 2015. Archived from the original on 2 February 2017. Retrieved 22 February 2017.
  37. ^ "РАДИОЛОКАЦИОННАЯ СТАНЦИЯ 96Л6Е" [96L6E RADAR]. guns.ru (in Russian). Archived from the original on 20 December 2014. Retrieved 3 April 2015.
  38. ^ "ОРУЖИЕ ОТЕЧЕСТВА, ОТЕЧЕСТВЕННОЕ ОРУЖИЕ И ВОЕННАЯ ТЕХНИКА (ОВТ)ВООРУЖЕНИЯ, ВОЕННАЯ ТЕХНИКА, ВОЕННО-ТЕХНИЧЕСКИЙ СБОРНИК, СОВРЕМЕННОЕ СОСТОЯНИЕ, ИСТОРИЯ РАЗВИТИЯ ОПК, БАСТИОН ВТС, НЕВСКИЙ БАСТИОН, ЖУРНАЛ, СБОРНИК, ВПК, АРМИИ, ВЫСТАВКИ, САЛОНЫ, ВОЕННО-ТЕХНИЧЕСКИЕ, НОВОСТИ, ПОСЛЕДНИЕ НОВОСТИ, ВОЕННЫЕ НОВОСТИ, СОБЫТИЯ ФАКТЫ ВПК, НОВОСТИ ОПК, ОБОРОННАЯ ПРОМЫШЛЕННОСТЬ, МИНИСТРЕСТВО ОБОРОНЫ, СИЛОВЫХ СТРУКТУР, КРАСНАЯ АРМИЯ, СОВЕТСКАЯ АРМИЯ, РУССКАЯ АРМИЯ, ЗАРУБЕЖНЫЕ ВОЕННЫЕ НОВОСТИ, ВиВТ, ПВН" [Weapons of the Fatherland, Our Arms And Military Equipment (OVT) Weapons, Military Equipment, Military Technical Collection, State of the Art, The History of the Development of the Defense Industrial Complex, The Bastion of the PTS, Nevsky Bastion, Magazine Sampler, Mic, Army, Exhibitions, Showrooms, Military-Technical, News, Latest News, Military News, Events, Facts of the MIC, Mic News Defense Industry, Ministry of Defence, The Security Forces, The Red Army, The Soviet Army, Russian Army, Foreign Military News, A And Me, HRP]. bastion-opk.ru (in Russian). Archived from the original on 8 April 2015. Retrieved 3 April 2015.
  39. ^ "Масштабные учения со стрельбами из С-300 и С-400 пройдут под Астраханью" [Extensive exercises with the firing of S-300 and S-400 will be Astrakhan]. arms-expo.ru (in Russian). Archived from the original on 23 July 2015. Retrieved 5 May 2015.
  40. ^ "ЗРС С-500 начнут поступать в войска в 2016" [S-500 will come to troops in 2016]. arms-expo.ru (in Russian). Archived from the original on 8 April 2015. Retrieved 3 April 2015.
  41. ^ "ЗРС С-400 "Триумф": обнаружение – дальнее, сопровождение – точное, пуск – поражающий – Журнал "Воздушно-космическая оборона"" [S-400 "triumph": Discovery-far, escorts-fine, start-striking-magazine "air-space defense"]. vko.ru (in Russian). Archived from the original on 23 July 2015. Retrieved 5 May 2015.
  42. ^ "Ростех :: Новости :: "Авиационное оборудование" модернизировало транспортную машину для С-400" [Rustech: News: aviation equipment "modernized transport car for S-400]. rostec.ru (in Russian). Archived from the original on 18 March 2015. Retrieved 5 May 2015.
  43. ^ "Missiles sol-air S-400 (Triumph)" (in French). RIA Novosti. 17 December 2009. Archived from the original on 16 October 2014. Retrieved 14 November 2014.
  44. ^ a b c d "ЗРС С-400 "Триумф"". Archived from the original on 29 September 2014. Retrieved 14 November 2014.
  45. ^ a b c "Характеристики зенитной ракетной системы С-400". РИА Новости. 17 February 2011. Archived from the original on 27 November 2014. Retrieved 14 November 2014.
  46. ^ "Минобороны России испытало новую ракету для ЗРС С-400". РИА Новости. 4 April 2015. Archived from the original on 4 April 2015. Retrieved 5 April 2015.
  47. ^ "ТАСС: Армия и ОПК – Минобороны испытало дальнюю ракету для С-400". ТАСС. Archived from the original on 6 April 2015. Retrieved 5 April 2015.
  48. ^ Are Russia’s Lethal S-400 SAMs Equipped with the Latest Long-Range Missiles? Archived 7 November 2017 at the Wayback Machine – Nationalinterest.org, 19 January 2017
  49. ^ "SA-21 GROWLER (S-400)". Archived from the original on 24 July 2015. Retrieved 12 August 2015 – via Scribd.
  50. ^ "Применение ЗРС С-400 Триумф". s400.ru. Archived from the original on 26 November 2013.
  51. ^ "Russian Aerospace Force receives over 30 planes and helicopters in 2016". TASS. Archived from the original on 4 July 2019. Retrieved 4 July 2019.
  52. ^ "Russian troops in Crimea receive S-400 antiaircraft missile system". TASS. Archived from the original on 4 July 2019. Retrieved 4 July 2019.
  53. ^ After U.S. Strikes Syrian Air Base, Russians Ask: 'Where Were Our Vaunted Air Defense Systems?' Archived 4 May 2017 at the Wayback Machine – Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty/Radio Liberty, 7 April 2017
  54. ^ a b c d "Характеристики зенитной управляемой ракеты большой дальности 40Н6". livejournal.com. 24 August 2018. Retrieved 24 August 2018.
  55. ^ "Характеристики зенитной управляемой ракеты большой дальности 40Н6". 24 August 2018.
  56. ^ a b сборник, БАСТИОН: военно-технический. "НЕВСКИЙ БАСТИОН, ВОЕННО-ТЕХНИЧЕСКИЙ СБОРНИК, ВООРУЖЕНИЯ, ВОЕННАЯ ТЕХНИКА, ВОЕННО-ТЕХНИЧЕСКИЙ СБОРНИК, СОВРЕМЕННОЕ СОСТОЯНИЕ, ИСТОРИЯ РАЗВИТИЯ ОПК, БАСТИОН ВТС, НЕВСКИЙ БАСТИОН, ЖУРНАЛ, СБОРНИК, ВПК, АРМИИ, ВЫСТАВКИ, САЛОНЫ, ВОЕННО-ТЕХНИЧЕСКИЕ, НОВОСТИ, ПОСЛЕДНИЕ НОВОСТИ, ВОЕННЫЕ НОВОСТИ, СОБЫТИЯ ФАКТЫ ВПК, НОВОСТИ ОПК, ОБОРОННАЯ ПРОМЫШЛЕННОСТЬ, МИНИСТРЕСТВО ОБОРОНЫ, СИЛОВЫХ СТРУКТУР, КРАСНАЯ АРМИЯ, СОВЕТСКАЯ АРМИЯ, РУССКАЯ АРМИЯ, ЗАРУБЕЖНЫЕ ВОЕННЫЕ НОВОСТИ, ВиВТ, ПВН". nevskii-bastion.ru. Archived from the original on 18 July 2017. Retrieved 6 February 2017.
  57. ^ "Триумф "Ворчуна"". S-400. Archived from the original on 10 April 2017. Retrieved 9 April 2017.
  58. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Kopp, Carlo (May 2009). "Fakel 48N6E3 and 40N6 Surface to Air Missiles". Almaz-Antey 40R6 / S-400 Triumf Self Propelled Air Defence System / SA-21: 1. Archived from the original on 25 June 2015. Retrieved 11 January 2016 – via AusAirpower.com.
  59. ^ a b c d e f g h Kopp, Carlo (May 2009). "Fakel 9M96E and 9M96E2 Surface to Air Missiles". Almaz-Antey 40R6 / S-400 Triumf Self Propelled Air Defence System / SA-21: 1. Archived from the original on 25 June 2015. Retrieved 14 November 2014 – via AusAirpower.com.
  60. ^ a b c d e f "С-400 "Триумф", зенитная ракетная система" [S-400 "Triumph" surface-to-air missile system]. Arms Expo (in Russian). Archived from the original on 23 March 2011.
  61. ^ "Зенитный ракетный комплекс ПВО средней дальности С-350 50Р6А "Витязь"". Archived from the original on 13 May 2016. Retrieved 28 May 2016.
  62. ^ "Пять преимуществ С-400 над Patriot". 5 May 2014. Archived from the original on 18 October 2016. Retrieved 23 October 2016.
  63. ^ Andrei Kislyakov, specially for RIR (18 December 2012). "Russia to roll out new hypersonic missiles". Indrus.in. Retrieved 29 October 2013.
  64. ^ "S-500 Prometheus". MissileThreat.com. 26 April 2013. Archived from the original on 29 October 2013. Retrieved 29 October 2013.
  65. ^ a b c "Национальная оборона / Оборонно-промышленный комплекс / В интересах ВКО России". oborona.ru. 2 October 2013. Archived from the original on 19 April 2015. Retrieved 22 May 2015.
  66. ^ Редактор. "В России создаётся новый ЗРК "Морфей"". army-news.ru. Archived from the original on 13 May 2015. Retrieved 22 May 2015.
  67. ^ "НОВЫЙ ЗРК "МОРФЕЙ"". narod.ru. Archived from the original on 23 March 2015. Retrieved 22 May 2015.
  68. ^ ""Морфей" опаздывает на два года". vpk-news.ru. Archived from the original on 4 October 2015. Retrieved 22 May 2015.
  69. ^ "42С6 "Морфей" – зенитный ракетный комплекс ближнего действия". army.lv. Archived from the original on 14 March 2015. Retrieved 22 May 2015.
  70. ^ сборник, БАСТИОН: военно-технический. "ВООРУЖЕНИЯ, ВОЕННАЯ ТЕХНИКА, ВОЕННО-ТЕХНИЧЕСКИЙ СБОРНИК, СОВРЕМЕННОЕ СОСТОЯНИЕ, ИСТОРИЯ РАЗВИТИЯ ОПК, БАСТИОН ВТС, НЕВСКИЙ БАСТИОН, ЖУРНАЛ, СБОРНИК, ВПК, АРМИИ, ВЫСТАВКИ, САЛОНЫ, ВОЕННО-ТЕХНИЧЕСКИЕ, НОВОСТИ, ПОСЛЕДНИЕ НОВОСТИ, ВОЕННЫЕ НОВОСТИ, СОБЫТИЯ ФАКТЫ ВПК, НОВОСТИ ОПК, ОБОРОННАЯ ПРОМЫШЛЕННОСТЬ, МИНИСТРЕСТВО ОБОРОНЫ, СИЛОВЫХ СТРУКТУР, КРАСНАЯ АРМИЯ, СОВЕТСКАЯ АРМИЯ, РУССКАЯ АРМИЯ, ЗАРУБЕЖНЫЕ ВОЕННЫЕ НОВОСТИ, ВиВТ, ПВН, информация по военной технике, сайт по Военной технике". bastion-karpenko.ru. Archived from the original on 20 July 2017. Retrieved 22 February 2017.
  71. ^ "ЗРС "Триумф" – ОАО "НПО "Алмаз"". Archived from the original on 3 July 2015. Retrieved 14 November 2014.
  72. ^ New missile for the s-400 is already being prepared for serial production Archived 30 May 2013 at the Wayback Machine "Military parity" (18 March 2010)
  73. ^ "Противоракетная защита Москвы пополнится пятым по счету полком С-400". Российская газета. Archived from the original on 21 March 2015. Retrieved 30 March 2015.
  74. ^ "ЗЕНИТНАЯ РАКЕТНАЯ СИСТЕМА С-400 "ТРИУМФ", ANTIAIRCRAFT MISSILE SYSTEM S-400 "TRIUMPH"". narod.ru. Archived from the original on 2 April 2015. Retrieved 30 March 2015.
  75. ^ "Триумф "Ворчуна"". S-400. Archived from the original on 10 April 2017. Retrieved 9 April 2017.
  76. ^ a b "Зенитная ракетная система большой и средней дальности С-400 "Триумф"". vpk.name. Archived from the original on 7 January 2015. Retrieved 7 December 2014.
  77. ^ a b "С-400 и С-500 в программе "Военная Тайна"". Archived from the original on 24 June 2015. Retrieved 14 November 2014 – via YouTube.
  78. ^ "Ракеты для С-400 поставят на поток в третьем квартале 2010 года". РИА Новости. 30 April 2010. Archived from the original on 16 July 2015. Retrieved 5 May 2015.
  79. ^ "RusArmy.com – Зенитная ракетная система большой и средней дальности С-400 "Триумф"". rusarmy.com. Archived from the original on 6 July 2015. Retrieved 29 April 2015.
  80. ^ "S-400令土耳其疏遠北約 普京乘虛而入". BBC. 13 September 2017.
  81. ^ "Зенитная ракетная система С-400 "Триумф" в деталях". Военно-патриотический сайт "Отвага". Archived from the original on 14 December 2014. Retrieved 14 November 2014.
  82. ^ "Характеристики С-400 "Триумф"". 18 September 2015. Archived from the original on 19 September 2016. Retrieved 28 August 2016.
  83. ^ "Ошибка – нет ни одного сайта". raspletin.ru. Archived from the original on 30 October 2013.
  84. ^ Defense Update. "After 3 years Delay, S-400 Triumf is Officially Fielded". Archived from the original on 16 October 2014. Retrieved 14 November 2014.
  85. ^ "S-500 Prometheus". Missile Threat. Archived from the original on 29 October 2013. Retrieved 14 November 2014.
  86. ^ "С-400 против MEADS" [S-400 against MEADS]. Правда.Ру (in Russian). 27 February 2013. Archived from the original on 6 October 2014. Retrieved 14 November 2014.
  87. ^ a b Denisov, Anton (26 August 2008). "Russia deploys S-400 air defense systems in Far East". RIA Novosti. Archived from the original on 26 April 2011. Retrieved 9 December 2010. A regular S-400 battalion comprises at least eight launchers with 32 missiles and a mobile command post.
  88. ^ "S-400 missile defense systems to start defending Moscow July 1". RIA Novosti. 21 May 2007. Archived from the original on 21 October 2012. Retrieved 9 December 2010.
  89. ^ "Systém S-400 připraven k obraně Moskvy" [The S-400 is ready to defend Moscow]. ATM online (in Czech). CS. RIA Novosti. 31 May 2007. Archived from the original on 3 July 2007. Retrieved 9 December 2010. …S-400 will be given to full combat readiness to defend Moscow and central Russia (near the town of Elektrostal in the Moscow region) on 1 July 2007.
  90. ^ "Russia to Belarus fearing of Ukraine". Charter 97.org. 15 April 2008. Archived from the original on 27 September 2011. Retrieved 10 December 2010. …sources report the regiment based at Elektrostal is the 606th Guards Anti-air Rocket Regiment, 9th PVO Division, 1st PVO Corps, of the Special Purpose Command
  91. ^ "Russia moves to longer-range interceptors". United Press International. 8 February 2008. Archived from the original on 12 February 2008. Retrieved 9 December 2010. Russian military experts expect the S-400 to be the backbone of the country's missile defenses through at least 2020.
  92. ^ Оружия не хватит – Для переоснащения армии нет средств [The Army cannot afford enough weapons for retooling]. Vedomosti (in Russian). 8 August 2008. Archived from the original on 30 June 2009. Retrieved 9 December 2010. LG-2015 provides for… the purchase of… 18 anti-aircraft missile battalions of S-400
  93. ^ "Second S-400 air defense regiment put into service in Russia". RIA Novosti. 17 March 2009. Archived from the original on 5 June 2011. Retrieved 10 December 2010.
  94. ^ "Defense Russia's second S-400 missile unit enters service", Rian, 16 February 2011
  95. ^ "Russia to deploy modern missile defense systems on disputed Kuril Islands", Rian, 15 February 2011
  96. ^ "Baltic Fleet Receives S-400 Air Defense Missile Systems". Rus navy. 6 April 2012. Archived from the original on 14 May 2012. Retrieved 29 October 2013.
  97. ^ "SA-21 Growler/S400 Triumph Long Range TABM/SAM – Russian Military Analysis". be: Warfare. Archived from the original on 1 March 2017. Retrieved 29 October 2013.
  98. ^ "Russia to induct three S-400 battalions in 2012". Air Force Technology. 19 March 2012. Archived from the original on 16 June 2013. Retrieved 6 April 2012.
  99. ^ "Russia's Eastern Military District Gets S-400 Missiles". Rian. 9 June 2012. Archived from the original on 13 June 2012. Retrieved 29 October 2013.
  100. ^ "Russia's Kirov Class Cruiser Admiral Nakhimov to be Fitted with 48N6DMK Missiles From S-400", Navy recognition, 12 November 2015
  101. ^ Henderson, Isaiah M. (18 July 2019). "Cold Ambition: The New Geopolitical Faultline". The California Review. Retrieved 19 July 2019.
  102. ^ Bora, Kukil (1 June 2015). "Russian Military To Deploy Bastion Anti-Ship Missile Complexes In Arctic In 2015". International Business Times. Archived from the original on 19 July 2019. Retrieved 19 July 2019.
  103. ^ a b "S-400 Triumph missile systems put on combat duty in Siberia". TASS. 1 March 2016. Archived from the original on 2 March 2016. Retrieved 1 March 2016.
  104. ^ Россия разместила в Сирии новейшие системы ПВО С-400 "Триумф", утверждает пресса Archived 15 November 2015 at the Wayback Machine NEWSru, 13 November 2015.
  105. ^ No, This Image Is Not Proof That Russia Deployed S-400 Advanced SAMs To Syria Archived 14 November 2015 at the Wayback Machine – Foxtrotalpha.Jalopnik.com, 13 November 2015
  106. ^ Missing Russian jet pilot 'alive and well' in Syria Archived 19 April 2018 at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved 25 November 2015.
  107. ^ "Россия развернула в Сирии ЗРК С-400". Kommersant. 26 November 2015. Archived from the original on 27 November 2015. Retrieved 26 November 2015.
  108. ^ a b Binnie, Jeremy; O'Connor, Sean (29 September 2017). "Second Russian S-400 in Syria confirmed". Jane's Information Group. Archived from the original on 2 October 2017. Retrieved 1 October 2017.
  109. ^ a b c "When Israel bombs Syria, Russia turns a blind eye | Nikola Mikovic". AW. 3 January 2022. Retrieved 9 January 2022. That night, neither Russia’s S-400 nor Syria’s air defence systems attempted to hit the Israeli planes. The truth is, Russia never activates its air defence systems against Israeli jets. Such passivity is believed to be part of a wider deal between the two countries. After the Kremlin started its military adventure in Syria in 2015, it reached an agreement with the Jewish State: Israel reportedly pledged to guarantee the safety of Russian citizens and military installations in Syria during its strikes on Iranian militias and Syrian military targets. In return, Moscow promised not to use its weapons to repel Israeli attacks. [...] Although the Russian military operating in Syria has the power to prevent Israel from hitting Iranian and Syrian targets, Russia constantly turns a blind eye to Israel’s activity in Syria. The attack on Latakia port was no exception.
  110. ^ Kubovich, Yaniv (22 May 2018). "Israel Is First Country in World to Carry Out 'Operational Attack' With the F-35 Stealth Fighter, Air Force Chief Says". Haaretz.
  111. ^ Egozi, Katz (9 June 2020). "Unanswered Israeli Air Strikes Against Syria Raise S-400 Questions". Breaking Defense. Retrieved 9 January 2022.
  112. ^ Global Dense Corp (31 December 2021). "Russian S-400 Watches As The Israeli Air Force Bombs Latakia Port Destroying Iranian Weapons Cache". Global Defense Corp. Retrieved 9 January 2022.
  113. ^ Beirut, Agence France-Presse in (28 December 2021). "Israeli airstrike sets port of Latakia ablaze, says Syrian media". the Guardian. Retrieved 9 January 2022. The Syrian government’s other major ally, Russia, operates a naval base in the port of Tartus, 53 miles (85km) to the south.
  114. ^ "Israeli attack on Syria port causes 'significant material damage'". www.aljazeera.com. Retrieved 9 January 2022. Russia, which has been President Bashar al-Assad’s most powerful ally during the war, alongside Iran, operates an airbase at Hmeimim, some 20km (12 miles) south of the city.
  115. ^ "Legendary Ukrainian display pilot known as Grey Wolf dies in combat". The Week. 1 March 2022. Retrieved 2 March 2022.
  116. ^ "Russian troops destroy 456 drones, 2,213 tanks in Ukraine special operation — top brass". tass.com. 15 April 2022. Retrieved 14 July 2022.
  117. ^ "Russia pledges more strikes on Kyiv after missile attack". reuters.com. 15 April 2022. Retrieved 14 July 2022.
  118. ^ "Russian ground attacks halted across front; Kyiv's precision rocket strikes hit Luhansk ammo depot". Kyiv Post. 13 July 2022. Retrieved 14 July 2022.
  119. ^ https://liveuamap.com/en/2022/15-october-the-remains-of-a-russian-s400-48n6dm-missile-in
  120. ^ "Россия установит в Белоруссии ракетные системы С-400 "Триумф"". km.ru. 24 May 2011. Archived from the original on 22 August 2018. Retrieved 28 April 2019.
  121. ^ a b "Lukashenko: A Belarusian training center already has S-400 systems". December 2021.
  122. ^ a b "Belarus buys Russian Iskander and S-400 missile systems to face NATO threat". armyrecognition.com. 20 May 2022.
  123. ^ "Китай закупил у России зенитную ракетную систему С-400" [China has purchased Russian anti-aircraft missile system S-400]. NTV.ru (in Russian). 13 April 2015. Archived from the original on 27 November 2015. Retrieved 26 November 2015.
  124. ^ Dominguez, Gabriel (18 January 2018). "Russia begins delivering S-400 air defence systems to China, says report". Jane's Information Group. Archived from the original on 20 January 2018. Retrieved 19 January 2018. Russia has begun delivering the Almaz-Antei S-400 Triumf self-propelled surface-to-air missile (SAM) system to China under the terms of a contract signed in 2014, TASS news agency cited an unnamed source close to the Russian military-industrial complex as saying on 18 January.
  125. ^ "China to test fire Russian S-400 systems for first time in late July-early August – source". TASS. 27 July 2018. Archived from the original on 24 December 2018. Retrieved 23 December 2018. China plans to carry out the first-time test firing of Russia's S-400 Triumf missile defense systems in the end of July or in early August, a military and diplomatic source told TASS.
  126. ^ "China successfully tests Russia's S-400 missile air defence system". The Economic Times. 27 December 2018. Archived from the original on 4 May 2019. Retrieved 10 June 2019.
  127. ^ "In another setback to China, Russia suspends deliveries of S-400 surface-to-air missiles". The Economic Times. 27 July 2020. Retrieved 2 July 2022.
  128. ^ "China's Checkmate: S-400 Looms Large Over Taiwan". Defense News. 6 December 2014. Retrieved 25 July 2021.
  129. ^ Gumrukcu, Tuvan. "Turkey, Russia sign deal on supply of S-400 missiles". U.S. Archived from the original on 28 June 2018. Retrieved 28 June 2018.
  130. ^ "Turkey signs deal to get Russian S-400 air defence missiles". BBC. 12 September 2017. Archived from the original on 9 April 2019. Retrieved 28 April 2019.
  131. ^ Reuters Editorial. "Pompeo presses Turkey on S-400 missiles purchase from Russia". U.S. Archived from the original on 29 June 2018. Retrieved 28 June 2018.
  132. ^ "US warns of sanctions as Turkey gets Russian S400". Archived from the original on 13 July 2019. Retrieved 13 July 2019.
  133. ^ "US removes Turkey from F-35 fighter jet programme". BBC. 17 July 2019. Archived from the original on 17 July 2019. Retrieved 18 July 2019.
  134. ^ "The United States Sanctions Turkey Under CAATSA 231". U.S. Embassy & Consulate in Greece. 14 December 2020. Retrieved 5 December 2021.
  135. ^ "S-400'leri beklerken: Kaç tane alıyoruz, maliyeti ne?". Diken. 29 June 2019.
  136. ^ "Turkey Looks To Replace S-400 Missiles; Goes 'Full Throttle' In Developing Indigenous Air Defense System – Reports". Latest Asian, Middle-East, EurAsian, Indian News. 28 December 2021. Retrieved 9 January 2022.
  137. ^ GDC (1 February 2020). "Turkey accused Russia of fraud, discloses fatal flaws in Russian-made S-400 SAM system, calling it a "chimney"". Global Defense Corp. Retrieved 9 January 2022.
  138. ^ "Russia preparing to supply S-400 missile systems to India: Dmitry Rogozin". news. 2 June 2017. Archived from the original on 5 June 2017. Retrieved 2 June 2017.
  139. ^ "India, facing sanctions for Russian arms deals, says it wants to pivot spending to the US". CNBC. 23 May 2019. Archived from the original on 28 June 2019. Retrieved 30 June 2019.
  140. ^ Bedi, Rahul (1 October 2018). "India's CCS clears procurement of five S-400 air-defence missile systems". IHS Jane's 360. New Delhi. Archived from the original on 6 October 2018. Retrieved 6 October 2018.
  141. ^ Peri, Dinakar (5 October 2018). "India signs $5.43 billion S-400 missile deal with Russia". The Hindu. New Delhi. Archived from the original on 6 October 2018. Retrieved 6 October 2018.
  142. ^ "India inks $5.43 billion deal to buy S-400 Triumf missiles from Russia". The Times of India. New Delhi. 5 October 2018. Archived from the original on 6 October 2018. Retrieved 6 October 2018.
  143. ^ Bedi, Rahul (3 January 2019). "India to begin inducting S-400 air-defence systems from October 2020". Jane's 360. New Delhi. Archived from the original on 3 January 2019. Retrieved 3 January 2019.
  144. ^ "U.S. defense secretary urges India to avoid buying Russian equipment". Reuters. 20 March 2021.
  145. ^ "Russia starts supplying S-400 air defense systems to India: Govt". The Times of India. Retrieved 14 November 2021.
  146. ^ "Russia starts delivery of S-400 to India. Here's all about the surface-to-air missile system". Hindustan Times. 14 November 2021. Retrieved 14 November 2021.
  147. ^ Bali, Pawan (10 October 2022). "India will get 3rd squadron of S-400 by November". Deccan Chronicle. Retrieved 10 October 2022.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  148. ^ "Russia To Deliver All S-400 Systems To India By 2023; Signs Deal With Turkey To Supply 2nd Batch Of 'Mighty Missiles'".
  149. ^ "Saudi Arabia to buy Russian tanks and helicopters in $2 billion weapons deal". 1 September 2009. Archived from the original on 16 December 2009.
  150. ^ "Riyadh mulls big Russian missile buy". United Press International. 22 March 2010. Archived from the original on 14 October 2017. Retrieved 29 April 2019.
  151. ^ "Saudi Arabia warms to idea of purchasing S-400s from Russia". 4 November 2019. Retrieved 24 April 2020.
  152. ^ "Saudi Arabia has no interest in the S-400, says Russian industry official". 16 November 2021. Retrieved 3 December 2021.
  153. ^ "Россия ведет с Турцией и Египтом переговоры по продаже С-400". newsru.com. 20 February 2017. Archived from the original on 22 February 2017. Retrieved 29 April 2019.
  154. ^ "Iraq needs S-400 air defense systems to defend against air attacks — MP". TASS. 24 February 2018. Retrieved 6 August 2019.
  155. ^ Binnie, Jeremy (1 March 2018). "Iraqi foreign minister confirms interest in S-400". London. Archived from the original on 1 March 2018. Retrieved 10 March 2018.
  156. ^ Rogoway, Tyler (26 February 2018). "Iraq Looking To Buy Russia's S-400 Air Defense System: Report". The Drive. Archived from the original on 27 February 2018. Retrieved 10 March 2018.
  157. ^ "Iraq to purchase Russia's S-400 missile systems". TASS. 15 May 2019. Retrieved 6 August 2019.
  158. ^ Ostroukh, Andrey; El Yaakoubi, Aziz; Jones, Gareth (25 January 2018). "Qatar in talks to buy Russia's S-400 systems: Tass". Reuters. Moscow. Archived from the original on 27 January 2018. Retrieved 27 January 2018.
  159. ^ Khan, Bilal (25 January 2018). "Qatar reportedly planning to procure S-400 SAM from Russia". Quwa Defence News & Analysis Group. Archived from the original on 27 January 2018. Retrieved 27 January 2018.
  160. ^ S.Amdt.2164 to S.4049
  161. ^ a b Gould, Joe (29 June 2020), "US could buy Turkey's Russian-made S-400 under Senate proposal", Defense News website, retrieved 2 September 2022, Senate Majority Whip John Thune, R-S.D., has proposed an amendment to the 2021 National Defense Authorization Act that would allow the purchase to be made using the U.S. Army’s missile procurement account. The move comes a year after the U.S. expelled NATO ally Turkey from the multinational F-35 program because it received the S-400 in a $2.5 billion deal.
  162. ^ "Serbia and S400". tass. 6 November 2019.
  163. ^ "Why China wants Russian S-400 missile defence system?". International Insider. 24 March 2020.
  164. ^ "대한민국 방위산업의 미래를 지키는 기업 Hanwha Thales". samsungthales.com. Archived from the original on 12 July 2007. Retrieved 2 May 2007.
  165. ^ "Defense & Security Intelligence & Analysis". Jane's Information Group. Retrieved 29 October 2013.
  166. ^ "Doosan Corporation Mottrol : Defence Weapon". Doosan.com. Archived from the original on 5 December 2009. Retrieved 29 October 2013.
  167. ^ "True Dream Partner – LIG Nex1". Lignex1.com:8001. Archived from the original on 13 July 2011. Retrieved 29 October 2013.
  168. ^ a b "Janes | Latest defence and security news". Janes.com.
  169. ^ GDC (14 November 2021). "India Receives First Batch Of S-400 Triumf". Global Defense Corp. Retrieved 15 November 2021.
  170. ^ a b c d "Новый полковой комплект зенитной ракетной системы С-400 получили войска ПВО России". bmpd.livejournal.com. 13 September 2019. Retrieved 17 November 2019.
  171. ^ a b "S-400 tartışmaları ve son gelişmeler". VeryansınTV. 26 August 2019.
  172. ^ Akramov (27 September 2018). "L'Algérie, potentielle victime collatérale des tensions entre les États-Unis et la Russie". TSA (in French). Retrieved 1 February 2021.
  173. ^ "Russia starts shipping S-400 air defense missile system to China: TASS cites source". Reuters. 18 January 2018. Archived from the original on 19 January 2018. Retrieved 28 April 2019.
  174. ^ "Russia begins delivering S-400 air defence systems to China, says report". 18 January 2018. Archived from the original on 19 January 2018.
  175. ^ "В Подмосковье заступает на боевое дежурство второй полк ЗРС С-400 "Триумф"". vesti.ru. Archived from the original on 18 February 2015. Retrieved 3 December 2015.
  176. ^ Беларусь. "210-й зенитно-ракетный полк ВВС и ПВО России, дислоцированный около поселка Морозки Дмитровского района Московской области, получил на вооружение два дивизиона новейшей зенитно-ракетной системы С-400. / Союзное вече / Приложения / Народная газета". Ng.by. Archived from the original on 29 December 2011. Retrieved 29 October 2013.
  177. ^ "New battalion of S-400 air defense systems goes on combat alert in Moscow Region".
  178. ^ "Бойцы ПВО показали, как работает новый ЗРК С-400 "Триумф"". РИА Новости. 11 April 2010. Archived from the original on 25 December 2015. Retrieved 3 December 2015.
  179. ^ "Еще пять дивизионов новейших систем ПВО С-400 могут поступить в ВВС в будущем году". Interfax.ru (in Russian). Archived from the original on 8 December 2015. Retrieved 3 December 2015.
  180. ^ "BBC Russian – Россия – Минобороны: три полка С-400 защитят Москву к концу года" (in Russian). BBC. 22 July 2011. Archived from the original on 25 December 2015. Retrieved 3 December 2015.
  181. ^ "Оборону Москвы усилили четвертым полком С-400". ТВ Центр – Официальный сайт телекомпании (in Russian). Archived from the original on 25 December 2015. Retrieved 3 December 2015.
  182. ^ a b c "Зенитчики ЮВО приняли на вооружение новую зенитную ракетную систему С-400 "Триумф" : Министерство обороны Российской Федерации". function.mil.ru. Archived from the original on 16 August 2016. Retrieved 14 August 2016.
  183. ^ "Новые комплексы С-400 "Триумф" поступили на вооружение ЗВО". Interfax.ru. 25 November 2015. Archived from the original on 25 November 2015. Retrieved 25 November 2015.
  184. ^ Readability (13 March 2019). "Перевооружение частей ПВО в 2018 году на зенитную ракетную систему С-400 – bmpd — LiveJournal". Bmpd.livejournal.com. Retrieved 27 February 2022.
  185. ^ "1490-й гвардейский зенитный ракетный полк получил четыре дивизиона ЗРС С-400". 26 February 2020.
  186. ^ "Лужский дивизион ПВО в Ленобласти перевооружен на С-400 "Триумф"". rossaprimavera.ru. 19 December 2018. Retrieved 17 November 2019.
  187. ^ "Первый комплекс С-400 развернут в Калининградской области". Российская газета. Archived from the original on 8 December 2015. Retrieved 3 December 2015.
  188. ^ "В Калининградской области развернули батареи С-400 "Триумф"". ria.ru. 15 March 2019. Retrieved 17 November 2019.
  189. ^ "В Находке заступил на боевое дежурство четвертый полк С-400 "Триумф"". arms-expo.ru. Archived from the original on 25 December 2015. Retrieved 3 December 2015.
  190. ^ "Партия зенитной ракетной системы С-400 прибыла на Камчатку". РИА Новости. 20 April 2015. Archived from the original on 20 April 2015. Retrieved 21 April 2015.
  191. ^ С-400 прибывает на Камчатку [The S-400 arrives at Kamchatka] (in Russian). livejournal.com. Archived from the original on 27 April 2015.
  192. ^ "Источник: Минобороны РФ в декабре впервые получит С-400 трехдивизионного состава". ТАСС. Archived from the original on 17 November 2015. Retrieved 3 December 2015.
  193. ^ "Военные во Владивостоке начали осваивать С-400 "Триумф"". РИА Новости. 25 November 2015. Archived from the original on 3 December 2015. Retrieved 3 December 2015.
  194. ^ "Зенитные комплексы С-400 прикрыли дальневосточное небо". dvnovosti.ru. 18 October 2018. Retrieved 17 November 2019.
  195. ^ "Зенитно-ракетный полк ЮВО ВВС России получил на вооружение комплекс С-400 "Триумф" – Телеканал "Звезда"". Tvzvezda.ru. 2 January 2011. Archived from the original on 19 December 2013. Retrieved 29 October 2013.
  196. ^ a b "Новые С-400 прибыли на место дислокации в Саратовскую область". 22 December 2017. Archived from the original on 22 December 2017. Retrieved 22 December 2017.
  197. ^ "Первый полк С-400 заступил на боевое дежурство в Мурманской области" [The first Regiment with the S-400 entered active military duty in the Murmansk region]. NTV.ru (in Russian). 21 March 2015. Archived from the original on 17 December 2015. Retrieved 26 November 2015.
  198. ^ ""Триумф" на Кольском полуострове защитит РФ от самолетов-разведчиков". Российская газета. Archived from the original on 25 December 2015. Retrieved 3 December 2015.
  199. ^ "ABD'liler S-400'leri uydudan izleyecek, etraftaki tarlalar satın alınacak". www.aydinlik.com.tr. 7 October 2019.
  200. ^ "S-400'ler bakın nereye yerleştirilecek". odatv.
  201. ^ "S-400 hazırlığı başladı! S-400'ler nereye kurulacak?". Ahaber.
  202. ^ "S-400 nereye konuşlanacak? İşte öne çıkan 3 yer..." www.aydinlik.com.tr. 7 August 2019.