Hymn to Liberty

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Hýmnos is tin Eleftherían
Hýmnos pros tin Eleftherían
English: Hymn to Liberty
Ὕμνος εἰς τὴν Ἐλευθερίαν
Ὕμνος πρὸς τὴν Ἐλευθερίαν
Ymnos Eis Tin Eleftherian.Book cover.1825.jpg

National anthem of Greece and Cyprus
LyricsDionysios Solomos, 1823
MusicNikolaos Chalikiopoulos Mantzaros, 1865
Adopted1865 (by Greece)[1]
1966 (by Cyprus)[2]
Audio sample
U.S. Navy Band instrumental version

The "Hymn to Liberty", or "Hymn to Freedom" (Greek: Ὕμνος εἰς τὴν Ἐλευθερίαν,[a] also Ὕμνος πρὸς τὴν Ἐλευθερίαν),[b] is a poem written by Dionysios Solomos in 1823 that consists of 158 stanzas and is used as the national anthem of Greece and Cyprus. It was set to music by Nikolaos Chalikiopoulos Mantzaros in 1865 and is the longest national anthem in the world by length of text.[1][3] It officially became the national anthem of Greece in 1865 and Cyprus in 1966.[4][5][6]

History[edit]

Dionysios Solomos, author of the lyrics

Dionysios Solomos wrote "Hymn to Liberty" in 1823 in Zakynthos, and one year later it was printed in Messolonghi. It was set to music in 1865 by the Corfiot operatic composer Nikolaos Chalikiopoulos Mantzaros, who composed two choral versions, a long one for the whole poem and a short one for the first two stanzas; the latter is the one adopted as the national anthem of Greece. "Hymn to Liberty" was adopted as the national anthem of Cyprus by order of the Council of Ministers in 1966.[7]

Lyrics[edit]

Inspired by the Greek War of Independence, Solomos wrote the hymn to honour the struggle of Greeks for independence after centuries of Ottoman rule.[8][9][10]

"Hymn to Liberty" recounts the misery of the Greeks under the Ottomans and their hope for freedom. He describes different events of the War, such as the execution of Patriarch Gregory V of Constantinople, the reaction of the Great Powers, extensively the Siege of Tripolitsa and the Christian character of the struggle.

Greek original[edit]

The following are the first eight verses of the poem. Only the first two constitute the national anthem of Greece.[citation needed]

Greek original[11][12][13] Transliteration IPA transcription[c] Poetic English translation[14][15]
(Rudyard Kipling, 1918)
Literal English translation

Σε γνωρίζω από την κόψη
Του σπαθιού την τρομερή,
Σε γνωρίζω από την όψη,
Που με βιά μετράει τη γη.

Απ’ τα κόκκαλα[d] βγαλμένη
Των Ελλήνων τα ιερά,
𝄆 Και σαν πρώτα ανδρειωμένη,
Χαίρε, ω χαίρε, ελευθεριά! 𝄇

Εκεί μέσα εκατοικούσες
πικραμένη, εντροπαλή,
κι ένα στόμα ακαρτερούσες,
«έλα πάλι», να σου πει.

Άργειε να 'λθει[e] εκείνη η μέρα,
Και[f] ήταν όλα σιωπηλά,
𝄆 γιατί τά 'σκιαζε η φοβέρα
και τα πλάκωνε η σκλαβιά. 𝄇

Δυστυχής! Παρηγορία
μόνη σου έμενε να λες
περασμένα μεγαλεία
και διηγώντας τα να κλαις.

Και ακαρτέρει, και ακαρτέρει
φιλελεύθερη λαλιά,
𝄆 ένα εκτύπαε τ’ άλλο χέρι
από την απελπισιά. 𝄇

Κι έλεες: «πότε, α! πότε βγάνω
το κεφάλι από τσ' ερμιές;»
Και[f] αποκρίνοντο από πάνω
κλάψες, άλυσες, φωνές.

Τότε εσήκωνες το βλέμμα
μες στα κλάιματα[g] θολό,
𝄆 και εις το ρούχο σου έσταζ’ αίμα,
πλήθος αίμα Ελληνικό. 𝄇

Se gnorízo apó tin kópsi
Tu spathiú tin tromerí,
Se gnorízo apó tin ópsi,
Pu me viá metrái ti gi.

Ap’ ta kókkala vgalméni
Ton Hellínon ta hierá,
𝄆 Ke san próta andrioméni,
Khére, o khére, eleftheriá! 𝄇

Ekí mésa ekatikúses
pikraméni entropalí,
ki héna stóma akarterúses,
"éla páli", na su pi.

Árgie ná ’lthi ekíni hi méra,
ke ítan hóla siopilá,
𝄆 giatí tá 'skiaze hi fovéra
ke ta plákone hi sklaviá. 𝄇

Dystykhís! Parigoría
móni su émene na les
perasména megalía
ke diigóntas ta na kles.

Ke akartéri ke akartéri
fileléftheri laliá,
𝄆 Héna ektýpae t’ állo héri
apó tín apelpisiá. 𝄇

Ki élees: póte, á! póte vgáno
to kefáli apó ts' ermiés;
ke apokrínonto apó páno
klápses, hályses, fonés.

Tóte esíkones to vlémma
mes sta kláimata tholó,
𝄆 ke is to rúcho su éstaz’ héma,
plíthos héma hellinikó. 𝄇

[se‿ɣno.ˈɾi.zo‿a.ˈpo tiŋ‿ˈɡop.si]
[tu spaθ.ˈçu tin dɾo.me.ˈɾi |]
[se‿ɣno.ˈɾi.zo‿a.ˈpo tin ˈop.si |]
[pu me ˈvja me.ˈtɾai̯ ti ˈʝi ‖]

[ap ta ˈko.ka.la‿vɣal.ˈme.ni]
[ton e.ˈli.non da‿i̯.e.ˈɾa |]
𝄆 [ˈce sam‿ˈbɾo.ta anð.ɾjo.ˈme.ni |]
[ˈçe.ɾe‿o ˈçe.ɾe | e.lef.θeɾ.ˈja ‖] 𝄇

[e.ˈci ˈme.sa‿e.ka.ti.ˈku.ses]
[pi.kra.ˈme.ni‿en.tɾo.pa.ˈli |]
[ˈc‿e.na ˈsto.m‿a.kaɾ.te.ˈɾu.ses |]
[ˈe.la ˈpa.li | na su pi ‖]

[ˈaɾ.ʝe ˈnal.θ(i)‿e.ˈci.n‿i ˈme.ra |]
[ˈce‿i.tan ˈo.la sjo.pi.ˈla |]
𝄆 [ʝa.ˈti ta 'scja.ze‿i fo.ˈve.ɾa]
[ce ta ˈpla.ko.ne‿i sklav.ˈja ‖] 𝄇

[ðis.ti.ˈçis ‖ pa.ɾi.ɣo.ˈɾi.a]
[ˈmo.ni ˈsu‿e.me.ne na les]
[pe.ɾa.ˈzme.na me.ɣa.ˈli.a]
[ce di.ˈɣon.tas ta na kles ‖]

[c‿a.kar.ˈte.ɾi | c‿a.kar.ˈte.ɾi]
[fi.le.ˈlef.θe.ɾi la.ˈlja |]
𝄆 [ˈe.na‿ek.ˈti.pae̯ ˈt‿a.lo ˈçe.ɾi]
[a.ˈpo tin a.pel.pi.ˈsja ‖] 𝄇

[ˈc‿e.les | ˈpo.te‿a ‖ ˈpo.te‿ˈvɣa.no]
[to ce.ˈfa.li‿a.ˈpo ts‿er.ˈmjes |]
[c‿a.po.ˈkri.non.to‿a.ˈpo ˈpa.no]
[ˈklap.ses | ˈa.li.ses | fo.ˈnes ‖]

[ˈto.t‿e.ˈsi.ko.nes to ˈvle.ma]
[mes sta ˈklaj.ma.ta ˈθo.lo |]
𝄆 [c(e)‿is to ˈru.xo ˈsu‿es.taz ˈe.ma |]
[ˈpli.θos ˈe.ma(‿)e.li.ni.ˈko ‖] 𝄇

We knew thee of old,
O, divinely restored,
By the lights of thine eyes,
And the light of thy Sword.

From the graves of our slain,
Shall thy valor prevail,
𝄆 as we greet thee again,
Hail, Liberty! Hail! 𝄇

Long time didst thou dwell
Mid the peoples that mourn,
Awaiting some voice
That should bid thee return.

Ah, slow broke that day
And no man dared call,
𝄆 For the shadow of tyranny
Lay over all: 𝄇

 
 
 
 

Yet, behold now thy sons
With impetuous breath
𝄆 Go forth to the fight
Seeking Freedom or Death. 𝄇

 
 
 
 

And we saw thee sad-eyed,
The tears on thy cheeks
𝄆 While thy raiment was dyed
In the blood of the Greeks. 𝄇

I know you from the blade
Of the sword, the terrifying [blade],
I know you from the appearance,
Which, with force, measures the earth.

From the bones taken out,
the sacred (bones) of greeks
𝄆 And as first brave again,
Rejoice, oh rejoice, liberty! 𝄇

There in you were living
bitter, ashamed,
And a mouth you were awaiting,
"Come again", should it tell you.

Late came that day,
And it was all silent,
𝄆 Because the bullying was overshadowing them
And the slavery was oppressing them. 𝄇

Unhappy one! Consolation
Alone was staying to tell you
Past greatnesses
And narrating them to mourn.

And it was awaiting, and it was awaiting
Freedom-loving speech.
𝄆 One hand strikes the other
Out of the hopelessness. 𝄇

And you were saying: when, oh when do I get
My head out of these lonely places?
And answering from above were
Cries, chains, voices.

Then you were raising your glance
Into the tears, blurry.
𝄆 And into the clothing of yours was dripping blood,
A lot of Greek blood. 𝄇

Uses[edit]

An adapted version was used during the short-lived Cretan State as the Cretan Anthem. The "Hymn to Liberty" had been the Greek royal anthem after 1864.

"Hymn to Liberty" has been the national anthem of Cyprus since 1966.[2]

"Hymn to Liberty" has been performed at every closing ceremony of the Olympic Games, to pay tribute to Greece as the birthplace of the Olympic Games.

The version commonly played by military bands is an arrangement composed by Lieutenant Colonel Margaritis Kastellis (1907–1979), former director of the Greek Music Corps.[23]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Hýmnos is tin Eleftherían, pronounced [ˈimnos is tin elefθeˈri.an].
  2. ^ Hýmnos pros tin Eleftherían, pronounced [ˈimnos pros tin elefθeˈri.an].
  3. ^ See Help:IPA/Greek and Modern Greek phonology.
  4. ^ Sometimes written κόκαλα,[16] a more modern form.
  5. ^ Written variously, including as να 'λθη[17] and νάλθη.[18] Έλθει is the modern formal third person singular perfective, also used in subjunctive compounds with να.
  6. ^ a b Occasionally, the abbreviated variant κι is used.[12][13]
  7. ^ Also written κλάυματα,[19] κλάηματα[20] and κλάματα.[21][22]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Εθνικός Ύμνος [National Anthem] (in Greek). www.presidency.gr. Archived from the original on 3 May 2011. Retrieved 30 May 2011.
  2. ^ a b "Presidency of the Republic of Cyprus – The National Anthem". Archived from the original on 3 May 2011. Retrieved 14 February 2011.
  3. ^ "Greece: Hymn to Liberty". NationalAnthems.me. Retrieved 7 April 2017.
  4. ^ Ηλίας Κανέλλης (25 September 2010). "Το μνημείο διατίθεται για διαδηλώσεις Η "χρήση" του Άγνωστου Στρατιώτη και... άλλες βέβηλες ιστορίες". Ta Nea. Ο «Ύμνος προς την Ελευθερίαν» του Διονυσίου Σολωμού είναι, πρωτίστως, ένα ποίημα μέσω του οποίου υμνήθηκε το έθνος-κράτος, σε περίοδο που οι εθνικές οντότητες ήταν ταυτόσημες της νεωτερικότητας.
  5. ^ Κωστούλα Τομαδάκη (22 November 2010). "Ο εθνικός ύμνος "ελεύθερος" στο Διαδίκτυο". To Pontiki. Το 1865, μετά την ένωση της Επτανήσου με την Ελλάδα, ο «Ύμνος προς την Ελευθερίαν» καθιερώθηκε ως εθνικός ύμνος της Ελλάδας.
  6. ^ Argolikos Archival Library of History and Culture (14 September 2012). "Εφημερίδα της Κυβερνήσεως – Το Ναύπλιον γενέθλιος πόλις της εφημερίδος της Κυβερνήσεως". Αργολική Αρχειακή Βιβλιοθήκη Ιστορίας & Πολιτισμού (Argolikos Archival Library of History and Culture. Ας σημειωθή χαρακτηριστικώς, ότι η περί ης ο λόγος εφημερίς προέτεινεν εις το φύλλον της 21ης Οκτωβρίου 1825 την καθιέρωσιν ως εθνικού ύμνου του ποιήματος του Δ. Σολωμού «Ύμνος προς την Ελευθερίαν», του οποίου εδημοσίευσεν ανάλυσιν υπό του Σπ. Τρικούπη.
  7. ^ "National Anthem". Archived from the original on 13 August 2011. Retrieved 3 June 2015.
  8. ^ "Ύμνος εις την Ελευθερίαν". stixoi. Retrieved 8 August 2019.
  9. ^ "Ύμνος εις την Ελευθερίαν". sansimera. Retrieved 8 August 2019.
  10. ^ Papaloizos, Theodore (2009). Greek language, Modern. ISBN 978-0-932416-02-5. Retrieved 8 August 2019.
  11. ^ Athene: The American Magazine of Hellenic Thought. Athene Enterprises, Incorporated. 1957. p. 3.
  12. ^ a b "Ύμνος εις την Ελευθερίαν". Sansimera.
  13. ^ a b "Διονύσιος Σολωμός, «Ο Ύμνος εις την Ελευθερίαν»". ebooks.edu.gr. Retrieved 4 January 2022.
  14. ^ "The National Anthem". Presidency.gr.
  15. ^ "Poem of the Day: Hymn to Liberty by Rudyard Kipling". HeraldScotland. Retrieved 30 December 2021.
  16. ^ "Orthodoxy in Modern Greek Poetry". www.myriobiblos.gr. Retrieved 4 January 2022.
  17. ^ Moleas, Wendy (25 March 2004). The Development of the Greek Language. Bloomsbury Academic. p. 84. ISBN 978-1-85399-675-7.
  18. ^ Kolias, Nina K. (1997). The Greeks in Alberta, 1903–1995. N.K. Kolias. p. 13. ISBN 978-0-9681616-0-9.
  19. ^ "Υμνος εις την Ελευθερίαν" (PDF). digital.mmb.org.gr. 1918. Retrieved 4 January 2022.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  20. ^ Genikē anthologia: poiēseōs & pezographias (in Greek). S.D. Dēmētrakos. 1965. p. 219.
  21. ^ "Σπουδαστήριο Νέου Ελληνισμού - Σολωμός Διονύσιος - Solomos". www.snhell.gr. Retrieved 30 December 2021.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  22. ^ "Ύμνος εις την Ελευθερίαν". Stixoi.
  23. ^ "National Anthem". Hellenic Army Academy. Archived from the original on 9 February 2015. Retrieved 30 January 2015.

External links[edit]