Red Storm Rising
|Publisher||G.P. Putnam's Sons|
|August 7, 1986|
|Media type||Print (Hardcover, Paperback)|
Red Storm Rising is a war novel, written by Tom Clancy and co-written with Larry Bond,[a] and released on August 7, 1986. Set in the mid-1980s, it features a Third World War between the North Atlantic Treaty Organization and Warsaw Pact forces, and is unique for depicting the conflict as being fought exclusively with conventional weapons, rather than escalating to the use of weapons of mass destruction or nuclear warfare. It is one of two Clancy novels, along with SSN (1996), that are not set in the Ryanverse.
Militants from Soviet Azerbaijan destroy an oil production refinery in Nizhnevartovsk, threatening to cripple the Soviet Union's economy due to oil shortages. After much deliberation, the Soviet Politburo decides to seize the Persian Gulf by military force in order to recoup the country's oil losses. Knowing that the United States had pledged to defend the oil-producing countries in the Persian Gulf, the Soviets decide that neutralizing NATO is a necessary first step before its military operation can take place. With West Germany neutralized and occupied, the Soviets believe that the United States would not move to rescue the Arab states since it could meet its oil needs from the Western Hemisphere alone.
To divert attention from the impending operation, the Politburo embarks upon an elaborate maskirovka to disguise both their predicament and their intentions. The Soviets publicly declare their arms reduction proposal to scrap their obsolete nuclear missile submarines. The KGB then carries out a false flag operation involving a bomb being detonated in a Kremlin building, framing a KGB sleeper agent as a West German intelligence spy involved in the incident. The Politburo publicly denounces the West German government and calls for retaliation.
Even though a planned attack on a NATO communications facility in Lammersdorf was compromised when a Spetsnaz officer was arrested, the Soviets push through with their advance operations in Germany. They suffer reverses on the first night of the war, however, when NATO stealth and fighter-bomber aircraft achieve air superiority over Eastern Europe by eliminating Soviet fighter and AEW&C aircraft, and destroying key bridges that much of the Soviet Army has yet to cross.
Nevertheless, the Soviet Navy achieves a decisive early victory against a US Navy carrier group and successfully occupies Iceland, taking control of the NATO airbase in Keflavík, ensuring command of the strategically important GIUK gap. A U.S. Air Force lieutenant, Mike Edwards, escapes the attack and hides behind enemy lines, serving as a scout for NATO forces. The Soviets also occupy northern Norway, bringing NATO radar and air stations in Scotland within range of sustained air attack.
After much difficulty in Germany, the Soviet Army, led by General-Colonel Pavel Alekseyev, scores a breakthrough in a tank battle at Alfeld, threatening to proceed west of Weser River without heavy resistance from NATO forces. Meanwhile, a naval attack on Soviet bomber bases with cruise missiles launched by NATO submarines paves the way for an amphibious assault on Iceland, retaking the island and effectively closing the Atlantic to Soviet forces. While Edwards is first reinforced by a squad of Royal Marines and then rescued by the United States Marines, a Soviet prisoner on the island reveals the true cause of the war, narrowing down bombing priorities to the Soviet Army's forward fuel depots and immobilizing the Soviet formations.
With Iceland re-taken, America is able to resupply NATO via sea, allowing the Allies to blunt the Soviet offensive and prepare for a decisive counterattack in Germany. The Soviet leadership begins to realize that they face the possibility of outright defeat -- either through an Allied military breakthrough or a war of attrition which, given their desperate lack of oil supplies, would amount to the same result. The General Secretary considers using nuclear weapons to force a favorable end to the war. This infuriates Alekseyev, who had been mobilizing for a final counterattack on Germany but faces execution by the Soviet government for its slow timetable. The KGB Chief organizes a coup along with Alekseyev and other members of the Politburo. The new Soviet government then negotiates for a ceasefire with NATO and a return to status quo ante bellum, ending the war.
- Edward Morris: Commanding officer of USS Pharris and later USS Reuben James
- Daniel X. McCafferty: Commanding officer of Los Angeles-class submarine USS Chicago
- Robert A. Toland III: NSA analyst and naval reservist, later promoted to commander in the United States Navy Reserve
- Michael D. Edwards, Jr.: First lieutenant in the United States Air Force serving as a meteorological officer at Naval Air Station Keflavik in Iceland. Leads intelligence gathering there during the Soviet occupation of the island with the code name of "Beagle", later receiving a Navy Cross for his bravery.
- Jerry "The Hammer" O'Malley: Lieutenant Commander in the USN serving as a helicopter pilot aboard Reuben James. Receives a Distinguished Flying Cross for his antisubmarine warfare work.
- Amelia "Buns" Nakamura: F-15C pilot for the USAF who becomes the first American female fighter ace by shooting down three Tu-16 Badger bombers while on ferry duty and later using ASM-135 anti-satellite missiles to destroy at least two Soviet naval radar reconnaissance satellites. She also becomes the first Space Ace because of her satellite shoot-downs.
- Terry Mackall: Sergeant First Class in the United States Army serving as an M1 Abrams tank commander in the 11th Armored Cavalry Regiment on the German front. Receives a battlefield promotion to lieutenant for his valor and leadership skills.
- Colonel Douglas "Duke" Ellington: USAF officer and commander of the F-19 Stealth squadron
- Colonel Charles DeWinter "Chuck" Lowe: Officer in the United States Marine Corps who works with Bob Toland before the conflict and later as the commanding officer of a Marine regiment in the invasion force that recaptured Iceland. Lowe served three Tours of duty in Vietnam and received a Navy Cross for his bravery in that war.
- General Eugene Robinson: Supreme Allied Commander Europe. Robinson served three Tours of duty in Vietnam and commanded the 101st Airborne Division.
- William Calloway: British Reuters correspondent and SIS agent.
- James Smith: Sergeant in the United States Marine Corps serving under lieutenant Edwards in Iceland.
- Pavel Leonidovich Alekseyev: Deputy Commander of the Southwest Front and then Commander in Chief-Western Theater after briefly serving as second in command. After the coup, he is made Deputy Minister of Defense and Chief of the General Staff of the Soviet Armed Forces.
- Mikhail Eduardovich Sergetov: Energy Minister and non-voting member of the Soviet Politburo. After the coup, he becomes acting General Secretary.
- Ivan Mikhailovich Sergetov: Alekseyev's aide-de-camp and Sergetov's son. Promoted to major during the war.
- Major Arkady Semyonovich Sorokin: Soviet VDV officer whose daughter Svetlana dies in the Kremlin bombing. Later recruited by Alekseyev for the coup.
- Boris Georgiyevich Kosov: Chairman of the Committee for State Security (KGB). Mastermind of the coup, only to be killed in revenge by Major Sorokin.
- Marshal Andre Shavyrin: Chief of the General Staff. Later executed by the Politburo for failing to bring favorable results on the war.
- Marshal Yuri Rozhkov: Commander-in-Chief of the Soviet Army. Executed along with Marshal Shavyrin.
- Marshal Fiodr Borrissovitch Boukharin: Commander of the Kiev Military District. Later promoted to the head of the General Staff after Shavyrin and Rozhkov's execution, then forced into retirement after Alekseyev's Coup.
- Andre Illich Chernyavin: Spetsnaz officer assigned to sabotage the NATO command post at Lammersdorf.
- Vigdis Agustdottir: Icelandic civilian rescued by Edwards from rapist Soviet soldiers in Iceland
- Patrick Flynn: Associated Press Moscow Bureau chief
- Ibrahim Tolkaze: Militant Islamist of Azerbaijani descent working as an oil field engineer. He and his confederates Rasul and Mohammet instigate the road to war by infiltrating the oil refinery where Ibrahim works, murdering multiple technicians and triggering numerous pipe ruptures that set the entire refinery and adjacent oil field ablaze. All of them are killed when security forces storm the control room.
- Gerhardt Falken: Alleged West German Federal Intelligence Service agent behind the Kremlin bombing
Red Storm Rising depicts a future Third World War, chiefly between the United States and the Soviet Union. It follows the "future war" genre first popularized by the 1871 novella The Battle of Dorking by George Tomkyns Chesney as well as the science fiction novel The War in the Air (1908) by H.G. Wells. Red Storm Rising is unusual among Cold War examples of the genre in that it presented a war fought entirely using conventional weapons rather than one with nuclear weaponry or chemical weaponry. For instance, The Third World War: August 1985 describes a conflict based on fairly similar assumptions, but involving heavy use of chemical weaponry and with limited use of strategic nuclear weapons at the conclusion of the conflict.
According to a document released by the UK National Archives in December 2015, U.S. President Ronald Reagan had recommended Red Storm Rising to UK Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher shortly after the Reykjavík Summit in 1986 between him and Soviet general secretary Mikhail Gorbachev so as to gain an understanding of the Soviet Union's intentions and strategy. Some of the advanced weapons systems described in the novel were deployed four years later in the Gulf War.
Tom Clancy met Larry Bond in 1982. Clancy had purchased Bond's wargame Harpoon as a primary source for his future novel The Hunt for Red October (1984). They used the board game's second edition miniature rules to test key battle sequences, notably the Soviet operation to seize Iceland and the attack on the carrier battle group in the "Dance of the Vampires" chapter, with Bond refereeing the game sessions, which typically involved several players on each side (Clancy among them) acting in various roles.
The two discussed Convoy-84, a wargame Bond had been working on at the time that featured a new Battle of the North Atlantic. The idea became the basis for Red Storm Rising. "I'm listed as co-author, but I wrote like 1 percent of the book," Bond stated in a 2013 interview. For research on the Politburo scenes, Clancy and Bond interviewed Soviet defector Arkady Shevchenko.
In 1987, the book was published in French as Tempête Rouge (Red Storm), translated by France-Marie Watkins, with the collaboration of Jean Sabbagh.
Like its predecessor, The Hunt for Red October, the book received critical acclaim for its accurate military narrative. Publishers Weekly praised it as "fascinating and totally credible story, told with authenticity and great suspense". Kirkus Reviews hailed it as "an informative, readable, sometimes dazzling speculation on superpower war".
In December 1988, MicroProse released a Red Storm Rising computer game, in which the player commanded an American submarine against Soviet forces. The player had the option of choosing between both single missions or campaign and which era to play in; modern missions offered the player more advanced submarines and weapons, but also a more technologically advanced adversary as well.
In 1989, TSR, Inc. released the Red Storm Rising board game designed by Douglas Niles, based on the book. The game won the Origins Award for Best Modern-Day Boardgame and Best Graphic Presentation of a Boardgame in 1989.
- The Third World War: The Untold Story, by John Hackett
- Red Army, by Ralph Peters
- Maritime interdiction
- While Bond is not credited on the book's jacket, Clancy's "Author's Note" preface states: "Although Larry's name does not appear on the title page, this book is his as much as mine. We never did figure out the division of labor, but what Larry and I accomplished was to complete a book as co-authors when our only contract was a handshake."
- "The New York Times bestseller list for the week of August 17, 1986" (PDF). Retrieved December 27, 2018.
- Milmo, Cahal (December 30, 2015). "Ronald Reagan 'prepared for historic Cold War meeting by reading Tom Clancy thriller'". The Independent.
- Mohdin, Aamna (December 30, 2015). "Reagan to Thatcher: Read a Tom Clancy thriller to understand the Soviet Union". Quartz.
- Greenberg, Martin H. The Tom Clancy Companion (revised ed.). pp. 11–17.
- Sipe, Russell; Wilson, Johnny; Clancy, Tom; Meier, Sid (July 1988). "An Interview with Tom Clancy". Computer Gaming World. pp. 22–24.
- "Choreographing the Dance of the Vampires".
- Peck, Michael (October 11, 2013). "The Name's Bond, Larry Bond". Foreign Policy. Retrieved August 13, 2022.
- LaGrone, Sam (October 8, 2013). "Interview: Larry Bond on Tom Clancy". USNI News. Retrieved January 9, 2019.
- "Book Review: Red Storm Rising 12-Copy Floor Display by Tom Clancy". Publishers Weekly. Retrieved January 9, 2019.
- "RED STORM RISING by Tom Clancy". Kirkus Reviews. Retrieved January 9, 2019.
- "Origins Award Winners (1989)". Academy of Adventure Gaming Arts & Design. Archived from the original on November 5, 2007. Retrieved October 29, 2007.
- Gallagher, Mark. Action figures: Men, action films, and contemporary adventure narratives (Springer, 2006).
- Griffin, Benjamin. "The good guys win: Ronald Reagan, Tom Clancy, and the transformation of national security" (MA thesis, U of Texas, 2015). online
- Hixson, Walter L. "Red Storm Rising: Tom Clancy Novels and the Cult of National Security." Diplomatic History 17.4 (1993): 599–614.
- Outlaw, Leroy B. "Red Storm Rising-A Primer for a Future Conventional War in Central Europe"" (Army War College, 1988). online
- Payne, Matthew Thomas. Playing war: Military video games after 9/11 (NYU Press, 2016).
- Terdoslavich, William. The Jack Ryan Agenda: Policy and Politics in the Novels of Tom Clancy: An Unauthorized Analysis (Macmillan, 2005). excerpt